© Noiche

char nick[] = "N0iche";

printf("https://www.root-me.org/%s\n", nick);

printf("%s\x40protonmail\x2ecom\n", nick);


Aug 23, 2020 •



e asm.cmt.right=true # Show comments at right of disassembly if they fit in screen
e asm.pseudo = true  # Shows pseudocode in disassembly. Eg mov eax, str.ok = > eax = str.ok
eco solarized        # Solarized theme
e scr.utf8 = true    # Use UTF-8 to show cool arrows instead of ASCII


You can open a binary using radare2 with the command : radare2 [binary].

the prompt always tells you where you are in the binary.

In the radare2 shell, you can use ? after any command to get some help. Here is a list of the most common category of commands :

_                       # Print last output
=[?] [cmd]              # Remote (rap://, raps://, udp://, http://, <fd>)
/[?]                    # Search for bytes, regexps, patterns, ... Similar to GDB
![?] [cmd]              # Run given command as in system(3)
a[?]                    # Analysis commands
d[?]                    # Debugger commands
g[?] [arg]              # Generate shellcodes with r_egg
i[?] [file]             # Get info about opened file from r_bin
o[?] [file] ([offset])  # Open file at optional address
p[?] [len]              # Print current block with format and length
P[?]                    # Project management utilities
s[?] [addr]             # Seek to address (also for '0x', '0x1' == 's 0x1')
v                       # Visual mode (v! = panels, vv = fcnview, vV = fcngraph, vVV = callgraph)
w[?] [str]              # Multiple write operations

Project management

P         # list all the projects
Po [name] # open a project
Ps [name] # save a project
P- [name] # delete a project (alias for `Pd`)
Pn -      # edit project notes

FS commands

You can navigate through the flagspaces (symbols, imports, functions, strings…) using the fs command :

fs [name] # select the given flagspace (list the flagspaces if no name is given)
f         # print the content of the selected flagspace

If you use fs, you will notice that every flagspace is marked with a *, meaning it is selected. Then, if you use f, the content of every flagspace will be printed.

If you use fs [name] and then fs, you will notice that only the given flagspace will be selected (it will be the only one marked with a *). Using f will then print out the content of that selected flagspace.

Seeking commands

s        # print current address
s [addr] # seek to the given address (you can give a symbol instead)
s-       # undo seek
s+       # redo seek
@        # temporary seek (for exemple, if you want to print the disassembled main's function, you can use pdf @main, radare2 will seek to the main, perform the pdf command, and then come back where you were)

Common analysis commands

aa  [none] # analyse all function
aaa [none] # analyse all function and rename the functions
av  [none] # search for vtables and print the result
ax  [none] # manage Xref (list them)
axt [addr] # find Xref to this address
axf [addr] # find Xref from this address
afl [none] # list the functions
afn [name] # rename the function at the current location (you can specify an address if you want)
afa [addr] # show function's argument (if no addr given, takes the current location)
afv [addr] # show function's variable (if no addr given, takes the current location)
agc [addr] # show function's call graph (if no addr given, takes the current location)

afvn [new_name] [old_name] # rename a function's variable
afvt [name] [new_type]     # change the type of a function's variable
afvd [name] [new_value]    # show the variables's value, and change it if a new value is given

Common debugger commands

If you want to debug a binary, open it directly in debugging mode : radare2 -d [binary]

doo [none] # alias for `ood`, reopen the file in debugger mode.
db  [addr] # set up a breakpoint at the given address
dc         # continue the execution
ds [x]     # step **x** instructions
dsu [addr] # step until reaching the given address
dr [name]  # print a register's value. No name = all general purpose registers are printed out.

Informations about the binary

iI   # binary informations
ie   # list the entrypoints
iS   # list the sections
ii   # list the imports
iz   # list the strings (add more z for more strings)
idp  # load a pdb file information
idpi # show the pdb file information

Printing informations

pdf     [addr] # print the disassembled function from the address
pd  [x] [addr] # print x line of disassembled instructions from the address
px  [x] [addr] # print x bytes as hexadecimal from the address
pxw [x] [addr] # print x bytes as hexadecimal words (32bits) from the address

Writing bytes

wz [string]    # write a zero-terminated string (C-style) at the current address
wo XX [addr]   # write hexadecimal XX to the address. If none is given, write to the current address instead
woR   [addr]   # write random bytes to the address. If none is given, write to the current address instead


CC        # list all comments
CC [text] # append comment at current address
CC!       # append comment at current address using the editor
CC-       # remove comment at current address
CCf       # list comments in the function
CCf-      # delete all comments in the function

Graph mode

Attention: graph mode is different from visual mode

VV     # enter graph mode
tab    # move to the next block
TAB    # move the previous block
+/-    # resize the selected block
.      # center graph to the current block
g      # seek to an offset
u/U    # undo/redo seek
t/f    # follow true/false statement
;      # add comment in the current block
:[cmd] # run r2 command

Useful tips

  • You can use rax2 to play with integers and switch from decimal to hexadecimal, including with Two’s complement.
  • You can add the Ghidra’s decompiler in radare2, using this module (use it with the pdg command).
  • You can use r2pipe from python or any others scripting language to automate some reverse task.
  • You might want to test Cutter, a nice GUI for radare2 including a decompiler.
  • Read the doc !